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  • 4μ8C In addition E F was reported to promote

    2022-09-17

    In addition, E2F3 was reported to promote tumor growth and metas-tasis in breast cancer.19,20 Lee et al.21 reported that silencing E2F3 sup-
    pressed tumor growth of Her2+ breast cancer 4μ8C by restricting mitosis. E2F4 was reported to play a role in breast cancer progression, and increased nuclear expression is associated with more advanced tumors with poor outcomes, indicating E2F4 had an oncogenic role rather than a tumor suppressor role in breast carcinogenesis.22
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    Table 1. The Significant Changes of E2F Expression in Transcription Level between Different Types of Breast Cancer and Normal Breast Tissues (Oncomine Database)
    Type of Breast Cancer versus Normal Breast Tissue
    Fold Change
    p Value
    t Test
    Source and/or Reference
    invasive breast carcinoma
    Glück breast statistics29
    invasive breast carcinoma
    TCGA
    invasive ductal breast carcinoma r> TCGA
    invasive lobular breast carcinoma
    TCGA
    medullary breast carcinoma
    Curtis breast statistics30
    invasive ductal breast carcinoma
    Curtis breast statistics30
    invasive breast carcinoma
    Curtis breast statistics30
    invasive breast carcinoma
    Glück breast statistics29
    invasive ductal breast carcinoma
    TCGA
    invasive breast carcinoma
    TCGA
    invasive lobular breast carcinoma
    TCGA
    invasive ductal breast carcinoma
    Zhao breast statistics31
    ductal breast carcinoma
    Richardson breast 2 statistics32
    ductal breast carcinoma
    Richardson breast 2 statistics32
    medullary breast carcinoma
    Curtis breast statistics30
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    ductal breast carcinoma
    Richardson breast 2 statistics32
    invasive breast carcinoma
    TCGA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    NA
    ductal breast carcinoma
    Richardson breast 2 statistics32
    invasive breast carcinoma
    TCGA
    invasive ductal breast carcinoma
    TCGA
    invasive lobular breast carcinoma
    TCGA
    invasive breast carcinoma
    Glück breast statistics29
    invasive lobular breast carcinoma
    TCGA
    invasive breast carcinoma
    TCGA
    invasive ductal breast carcinoma 2.416
    TCGA
    NA, not available; TCGA, The Cancer Genome Atlas.
    Downregulation of E2F5 in MCF7 cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and it increased cell arrest at the G0/G1 stage in vitro.23 Cai et al.24 discovered that E2F5 exhibited higher levels in four breast cancer cell lines and 12 tissue samples and functioned as an oncogene in breast cancer. Moreover, E2F6 negatively regulated BRCA1,25 methylation of whose pro-moter has been reported to occur sporadically in breast cancer, with proportions ranging from 11% to 31%.26 E2F7 expression was significantly elevated in ER-positive breast cancer compared with normal breast tissues, and E2F7 overexpression conferred resistance to tamoxifen in MCF7 cells.27 Upregulation of E2F8 promotes cell proliferation and tumorigenicity in breast cancer by modulating G1/S phase transition.28 E2F8 also conferred cisplatin resistance in ER+ breast cancer cells.29 However, the underlying mechanism by which E2Fs are activated or depressed and the distinct functions of the E2F factors in breast cancer have yet to be fully elucidated. 
    The dysregulated expression levels of E2F factors and their relation-ship with clinicopathological features and prognosis have been partly reported in human breast cancer. To the best of our knowledge, bioinformatics analysis has yet to be applied to explore the role of E2Fs in breast cancer. RNA and DNA research, an essential compo-nent of biological and biomedical studies, has been revolutionized with the development of microarray technology.30 On the basis of the analyses of thousands of gene expressions or variations in copy numbers published online, we analyzed the expressions and muta-tions of different E2F factors in patients with breast cancer in detail to determine the expression patterns, potential functions, and distinct prognostic values of TFs in breast cancer.